DEADLINE:7 April 2021


Zimbabwe’s  Community Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) which came into existance in the 1980’s become a reference point informing regional and global discussion on Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM). Frost and Bond (2008) refer to it as “the flagship community-based natural resource management programme in southern Africa”. CAMPFIRE contributed significantly to CBNRM policy and practice through its experience, technology and lessons and CBNRM is now generally accepted and practiced widely across SADC. It inspired the formation of Administrative Design for Game Management Areas (ADMADE) in Zambia, Tchuma Chato (Our Wealth) in Mozambique,Living in a Finite Environment (LIFE) in Namibia and Contractual Parks and Local Boars in South Africa.

However at the turn of the year 2000, there was a decline in the performance of the CAMPFIRE and there are plethora of reasons to this decline. As a result of this decline in 2016, the Ministry of Environment, Climate, Tourism and Hospitality Industry commissioned a comprehensive stakeholders’ review of  the CAMPFIRE with funding support from the EU. This was in response to a number of challenges which include: (i) reduction in beneficiation of communities, (ii) severe deforestation, (iii) increased pressure on wildlife populations for ivory and rhino horn targeting an international traffic network, and (iv) low field level capacity for the protection of wildlife resources. The review highlighted a number of weaknesses in CAMPFIRE. Two of these weaknesses are highlighted here.

One of the weaknesses is that the enabling environment for CAMPFIRE is limited – there is partial devolution of Appropriate Authority (AA) status. Legislative devolution of AA is vested with the Rural District Council (RDC) with the arrangement that the community is responsible for production, RDCs are responsible for management and benefits are shared between the two. Local level management institutions and governance systems are weak, as RDCs retain the control over wildlife resources and make the key decisions in designing and implementing solutions in the management and marketing of these resources. The bottom line is that community decision making and benefits accruing to them are limited.

The other weakness is that the focus of CAMPFIRE is on wildlife management and related wildlife habitats. CAMPFIRE areas are restricted to areas with wildlife that are adjacent to Protected Areas (PAs). There are many other areas that are not close to PAs that do not have wildlife but are endowed with other natural resources that have potential to support livelihoods.

Between 2014 and 2018 the EU supported the Forest Forces Project with a focus on afforestation and the volarisation of non-timber forest products (NTFP). The Project covered eight districts and was implemented by FAO with a number of NGOs. The Project promoted six value chains including Baobab (powder, fortified drink, cake), Jatropha (soap), Manketti (oil), Marula (jam kennels, oil and butter), timber out grower schemes (seedlings and timber) and honey (and products). Non Timber Forest Products processing centres were established in Chimanimani, Hwange, Lupane and Matobo and groups wereregistered as Private Business Corporations (PBC) running commercial forest based enterprises. This shows  that potential value in natural resources, other than wildlife, can be unlocked to support a green economy and rural livelihoods. This tells the story that diversification from hunting when well supported presents the potential to increase and diversify the revenue base from community based natural resources management (CBNRM) programmes for the households. Diversification therefore presents a good strategy for spreading the price and concentration of risks in CAMPFIRE and contributes to sustainability of CBNRM programmes. This presents the argument for the CAMPFIRE concept to be inclusive of all natural resources to include forests, woodlands, wetlands and agrobiodiversity. On the basis of these weaknesses and the potential to unlock the value in natural resources, the CAMPFIRE Review recommended the following reforms to the Government of Zimbabwe:

To amend current wildlife & environmental legislation and align with multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and Constitution of Zimbabwe; and

  • evise and update a number of policies including the National Environmental Policy, Wildlife Policy, Forestry Policy, Water Policy, Tourism Policy to include CBNRM, CAMPFIRE program and emerging issues, integrated planning and climate change adaptation.

Following the CAMPFIRE review the Government accepted and adopted the recommendation for devolution of AA to community wildlife production units. This is reflected in the Zimbabwe cabinet decision of September 2020. In September 2020 Cabinet  approved that a Statutory Instrument on CAMPFIRE Regulations be enacted clearly spelling out, among other things, the definition of Appropriate Authority status and roles, Appropriate Authority conferment procedures and revocation, producer communities, revenue sharing mechanisms and ratios, and accountability and institutional arrangements for a renewed CAMPFIRE Model.[1] More so cabinet also directed that appropriate Standard Operational Procedures for CAMPFIRE and Community-Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) be established.and also that a Practitioners Manual for CAMPFIRE/ CBNRM be developed by the Parks and Wildlife Management Authority.[2] The Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association (ZELA) sees this significant development as an opportunity for a transformative change in natural resources and biodiversity governance and management in the country. In an attempt to influence the adoption and implementation of the proposed reforms by the CAMPFIRE Review, ZELA seeks to engage the services of a Consultant who will develop a dedicated CBNRM Policy.


  • The overall objective of this consultancy is to engage a consultant to develop a dedicated CBNRM Policy


On the basis of the Draft CBNRM Policy, ZELA intends to engage policy makers to influence the adoption of thethe CBNRM Policy. ZELA will convene a high level policy dialogue with relevant stakeholders to table the CBNRM Policy.

Scope of Work

  • Consult and engage with critical stakehoolders to inform the development of the CBNRM Policy
  • Review literature on the CBNRM Policy and documents by the CAMPFIRE Review Committee 
  • Review the context and cast a vision which shows the development of a green economy as the future for conservation in Zimbabwe. Also forecast future trends and patterns that are likely to shape natural resource management in Zimbabwe
  • Develop a CBNRM Policy for Zimbabwe. The CBRNM should include:
  • All renewable natural resources;
  • CBNRM, Governance, Constitutional and Environmental Principles
  • Emerging issues to be included for consideration:
    • Community rights including provisions for meaningful devolution, community participation and governance;
    • Conferment and regulation of AA and user rights to Community Based Organizations at sub-district level;
    • Environmental rights
    • Access and benefit sharing (royalties, financial and non-financial);
    • Formulae for sharing benefits;
    • Prior informed consent of communities (material transfer agreement (MTAs;
    • Beneficiation of products;
    • Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC);
    • Creating a platform for community concerns to be submitted and considered in relation to CBNRM policy at national and regional level as well as within the context of Trans-Frontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs); and
    • Developing a mechanism for effective co-ordination and periodic review of CBNRM issues.
  • Provisions for devolution and assignment of appropriate authority (AA) for holistic natural resources management at local / sub-district level; and
  • Integrated planning, climate change adaptation and gender mainstreaming.
  • Develop of a 2-pager policy position paper on the CBNRM Policy
  • Convening and facilitation of a policy dialogue meeting to share findings from the development of the CBNRM Policy and finalise the development of the Policy based on comments from the meeting
  • Take part and present the  Draft Policy during 2 High Level Natural Resource Governance Dialogues that ZELA will convene in 2021


  • A comprehensive CBRM Policy.  
  • A 2-page policy position paper based on the review of  literature on the CBNRM Policy and other relevant documents.
  • Presentation(s) on the CBRM policy for 2 High Level Natural Resource Dialogues.


The consultancy shall be for 30 days from the date of signing the contract with the consultant.

Supervision of the work

The consultant will work under the direct and overall supervision of the Executive Director of ZELA and the Coordinator of the Africa Institute for Environmental Law.

Profile/ Consultancy Requirements

  • At least a Master Level University Degree in Public Policy and Governance, Ecosystems, Wildlife Management, Law, Political Science or other relevant disciplines. 
  • Minimum of 5-10 years of experience in wildlife management and CBNRM research
  • Good knowledge and understanding of natural resource governance will be an added advantage.
  • Proven excellent communication and facilitation skills, including in multi-cultural settings.
  • Excellent and proven analytical skills.
  • Excellent and proven English writing skills.
  • Relevant experience in related or similar assignments.
  • Excellent organizational and communication skills, ability to prioritize and work with minimum supervision.

To apply

Persons with demonstrable experience of conducting similar work are encouraged to submit: An Expression of Interest (EOI) which is not more than 5 pages. The EOI must detail applicant’s understanding of the TORs, costs; a summary of applicant’s skills and experience relevant to conducting this kind of assignment; applicant’s Curriculum Vitae, with names of three referees and their contact details (email and phone). Applications which do not contain all the above documents will be regarded as incomplete and will not be considered. Applications must be addressed to  procurementzw@gmail.com  by the 7th  of April 2021. The title of the consultancy should be clearly stated in the email subject and only shortlisted candidates will be contacted.

[1] https://www.herald.co.zw/call-for-renewed-campfire-model/

[2] Ibid

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.