DEADLINE:7 April 2021
Zimbabwe’s Community Areas Management Program for
Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) which came into existance in the 1980’s become
a reference point informing regional and global discussion on Community Based
Natural Resource Management (CBNRM). Frost
and Bond (2008) refer to it as “the flagship community-based natural
resource management programme in southern Africa”. CAMPFIRE contributed
significantly to CBNRM policy and practice through its experience, technology
and lessons and CBNRM is now generally accepted and practiced widely across
SADC. It inspired the formation of Administrative Design for Game Management
Areas (ADMADE) in Zambia, Tchuma Chato (Our Wealth) in Mozambique,Living in a Finite
Environment (LIFE) in Namibia and Contractual Parks and Local Boars in South
However at the turn
of the year 2000, there was a decline in the performance of the CAMPFIRE and
there are plethora of reasons to this decline. As a result of this decline in
2016, the Ministry of Environment, Climate, Tourism and Hospitality Industry
commissioned a comprehensive stakeholders’ review of the CAMPFIRE with funding support from the EU.
This was in response to a number of challenges which include: (i) reduction
in beneficiation of communities, (ii) severe deforestation, (iii) increased
pressure on wildlife populations for ivory and rhino horn targeting an
international traffic network, and (iv) low field level capacity for the
protection of wildlife resources. The review highlighted a number of weaknesses in
CAMPFIRE. Two of these weaknesses are highlighted here.
One of the weaknesses is that
the enabling environment for CAMPFIRE is limited – there is partial devolution
of Appropriate Authority (AA) status. Legislative devolution of AA is vested with
the Rural District Council (RDC) with the arrangement that the community is responsible for production,
RDCs are responsible for management and benefits are shared between the two.
Local level management institutions and governance systems are weak, as RDCs
retain the control over wildlife resources and make the key decisions in designing
and implementing solutions in the management and marketing of these resources.
The bottom line is that community decision making and benefits accruing to them
The other weakness
is that the focus of CAMPFIRE is on wildlife management and related wildlife
habitats. CAMPFIRE areas are restricted to areas with wildlife that are
adjacent to Protected Areas (PAs). There are many other areas that are not
close to PAs that do not have wildlife but are endowed with other natural
resources that have potential to support livelihoods.
Between 2014 and 2018 the EU supported the Forest
Forces Project with a focus on afforestation and the volarisation of non-timber
forest products (NTFP). The Project covered eight districts and was implemented
by FAO with a number of NGOs. The Project promoted six value chains including Baobab (powder, fortified drink, cake),
Jatropha (soap), Manketti (oil), Marula (jam kennels, oil and butter), timber
out grower schemes (seedlings and timber) and honey (and products). Non Timber
Forest Products processing centres were established in Chimanimani, Hwange,
Lupane and Matobo and groups wereregistered as Private Business Corporations
(PBC) running commercial forest based enterprises. This shows that potential value in natural resources, other than wildlife, can be
unlocked to support a green economy and rural livelihoods. This tells the
story that diversification from hunting when well supported presents the
potential to increase and diversify the revenue base from
community based natural resources management (CBNRM) programmes for the
households. Diversification therefore presents a good strategy for spreading
the price and concentration of risks in CAMPFIRE and contributes to
sustainability of CBNRM programmes. This presents the argument for the CAMPFIRE concept to be inclusive of all natural
resources to include forests, woodlands, wetlands and agrobiodiversity. On the
basis of these weaknesses and the potential to unlock the value in natural
CAMPFIRE Review recommended the following reforms to the Government of
To amend current wildlife &
environmental legislation and align with multilateral environmental agreements
(MEAs) and Constitution of Zimbabwe; and
and update a number of policies including the National Environmental Policy,
Wildlife Policy, Forestry Policy, Water Policy, Tourism Policy to include
CBNRM, CAMPFIRE program
and emerging issues, integrated planning and climate change adaptation.
Following the CAMPFIRE review the Government
accepted and adopted the recommendation for devolution of AA to community wildlife
production units. This is reflected in the Zimbabwe cabinet decision of September 2020. In September 2020
Cabinet approved that a Statutory
Instrument on CAMPFIRE Regulations be enacted clearly spelling out, among other
things, the definition of Appropriate Authority status and roles, Appropriate
Authority conferment procedures and revocation, producer communities, revenue
sharing mechanisms and ratios, and accountability and institutional
arrangements for a renewed CAMPFIRE Model. More so cabinet also directed
that appropriate Standard Operational Procedures for CAMPFIRE and
Community-Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) be established.and also
that a Practitioners Manual for CAMPFIRE/ CBNRM be developed by the Parks and
Wildlife Management Authority. The Zimbabwe Environmental Law
Association (ZELA) sees this significant development as an opportunity for a
transformative change in natural resources and biodiversity governance and
management in the country. In an attempt to influence the adoption and implementation
of the proposed reforms by the CAMPFIRE Review, ZELA seeks to engage the
services of a Consultant who will develop a dedicated
overall objective of this consultancy is to engage a consultant to develop a dedicated
On the basis of the
Draft CBNRM Policy, ZELA intends to engage policy makers to influence the adoption
of thethe CBNRM Policy. ZELA will convene a high level policy dialogue with relevant
stakeholders to table the CBNRM Policy.
Scope of Work
and engage with critical stakehoolders to inform the development of the
literature on the CBNRM Policy and documents by the CAMPFIRE Review
the context and cast a vision which shows the development of a green
economy as the future for conservation in Zimbabwe. Also forecast future trends and
patterns that are likely to shape natural resource management in Zimbabwe
a CBNRM Policy for Zimbabwe. The CBRNM should include:
renewable natural resources;
Governance, Constitutional and Environmental Principles
issues to be included for consideration:
rights including provisions for meaningful devolution, community participation
and regulation of AA and user rights to Community Based Organizations at
- Access and
benefit sharing (royalties, financial and non-financial);
for sharing benefits;
informed consent of communities (material transfer agreement (MTAs;
Wildlife Conflict (HWC);
- Creating a
platform for community concerns to be submitted and considered in relation to
CBNRM policy at national and regional level as well as within the context of
Trans-Frontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs); and
a mechanism for effective co-ordination and periodic review of CBNRM issues.
for devolution and assignment of appropriate authority (AA) for holistic
natural resources management at local / sub-district level; and
planning, climate change adaptation and gender mainstreaming.
- Develop of a 2-pager policy position paper on the
- Convening and facilitation of a
policy dialogue meeting to share findings from the development of the CBNRM
Policy and finalise the development of the Policy based on comments from the
- Take part and present the Draft Policy during 2 High Level Natural
Resource Governance Dialogues that ZELA will convene in 2021
- A comprehensive CBRM Policy.
- A 2-page policy position paper
based on the review of literature on the CBNRM Policy and other
- Presentation(s) on the CBRM policy for 2 High Level Natural Resource Dialogues.
The consultancy shall be for 30 days from the date of
signing the contract with the consultant.
Supervision of the work
The consultant will work under the direct and
overall supervision of the Executive Director of ZELA and the Coordinator of
the Africa Institute for Environmental Law.
Profile/ Consultancy Requirements
- At least a Master Level University Degree in Public
Policy and Governance, Ecosystems, Wildlife Management, Law, Political Science
or other relevant disciplines.
- Minimum of 5-10 years of experience in wildlife
management and CBNRM research
- Good knowledge and understanding of natural
resource governance will be an added advantage.
- Proven excellent communication and
facilitation skills, including in multi-cultural settings.
- Excellent and proven analytical skills.
- Excellent and proven English writing skills.
- Relevant experience in related or similar assignments.
- Excellent organizational and communication skills,
ability to prioritize and work with minimum supervision.
Persons with demonstrable experience of conducting
similar work are encouraged to submit: An Expression of Interest (EOI) which is
not more than 5 pages. The EOI must detail applicant’s understanding of the
TORs, costs; a summary of applicant’s skills and experience relevant to
conducting this kind of assignment; applicant’s Curriculum Vitae, with names of
three referees and their contact details (email and phone). Applications which
do not contain all the above documents will be regarded as incomplete and will
not be considered. Applications must be addressed to email@example.com by the 7th of April 2021. The title of the
consultancy should be clearly stated in the email subject and only shortlisted
candidates will be contacted.